We work independently and through strategic collaborations and alliances with third parties to capitalize on our drug target discoveries and drug discovery and development programs. We seek to retain exclusive rights to the benefits of certain drug discovery and development programs by developing and commercializing drug candidates from those programs internally. We also collaborate with other pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, such as Ipsen and Sanofi, with respect to the development and commercialization of drug candidates from other programs, particularly when the collaboration may provide us with access to expertise and complementary resources:
We established a drug discovery alliance with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company in December 2003 to discover, develop and commercialize small molecule drugs in the neuroscience field. Bristol-Myers Squibb extended the target discovery term of the alliance in May 2006. We initiated the alliance with a number of neuroscience drug discovery programs at various stages of development and used our gene knockout technologies to identify additional drug targets with promise in the neuroscience field. For those targets that were selected for the alliance, we and Bristol-Myers Squibb worked together, on an exclusive basis, to identify, characterize and carry out the preclinical development of small molecule drugs. Bristol-Myers Squibb has the first option to assume full responsibility for clinical development and commercialization of any drugs resulting from the alliance which enter clinical trials, other than LX9211 and additional compounds acting through AAK1. We received $86 million in upfront payments and research funding under the agreement during the target discovery portion of the alliance, which expired in October 2009. In addition, we are entitled to receive clinical and regulatory milestone payments ranging, depending on the timing and extent of our efforts in the alliance, up to $76 million for each drug developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the alliance. We will also earn royalties on sales of drugs commercialized by Bristol-Myers Squibb under the alliance.
We jointly developed LX9211 with Bristol-Myers Squibb as part of the alliance, and separately obtained from Bristol-Myers Squibb exclusive research, development and commercialization rights to LX9211 and additional compounds acting through AAK1. We have agreed to pay Bristol-Myers Squibb up to $34.5 million in clinical and regulatory milestones for the first indication and up to $16 million in clinical and regulatory milestones for each of the second and third indications, if applicable. We have also agreed to pay single digit royalties on worldwide net sales and up to $40 million in commercial milestones.
We established a drug discovery alliance with Genentech, Inc. in December 2002 to discover novel therapeutic proteins and antibody targets. We and Genentech expanded the alliance in November 2005 for the advanced research, development and commercialization of new biotherapeutic drugs. Under the original alliance agreement, we used our target validation technologies to discover the functions of secreted proteins and potential antibody targets identified through Genentech’s internal drug discovery research. In the expanded alliance, we conducted additional, advanced research on a broad subset of those proteins and targets. We have exclusive rights to develop and commercialize biotherapeutic drugs for two of these targets, while Genentech has exclusive rights to develop and commercialize biotherapeutic drugs for the other targets. We retain certain other rights to discoveries made in the alliance, including non-exclusive rights, along with Genentech, for the development and commercialization of small molecule drugs addressing the targets included in the alliance. We received $58 million in upfront payments, research funding and research milestone payments under the agreement during the research collaboration term, which expired in November 2008. In addition, we are entitled to receive clinical and regulatory milestone payments ranging, depending on the extent of our efforts in the alliance, up to $25 million for each drug target for which Genentech develops a biotherapeutic drug under the alliance. We will also earn royalties on sales of biotherapeutic drugs commercialized by Genentech under the alliance. Genentech is entitled to receive milestone payments and royalties on sales of biotherapeutic drugs which we develop or commercialize under the alliance.